Encourage students to choose the order that will best present their ideas. Explain that cause-and-effect essays may be structured in various ways. Give students time to write their rough drafts in class or assign them as homework.
Tell students to use the chart as a resource while they complete their drafts. For some, sequential order might work well.
Instructional Procedures Focus Question: They must also put in quotation marks any words or phrases that they copy directly from a source. Finally, explain that the conclusion should summarize their main points and restate their thesis. Encourage them to come up with an interesting fact, example, or anecdote to introduce their topic.
This is written at a higher readability level and has a less traditional organization format for cause-and-effect analysis. You may decide to use only the outline if students do not need as much scaffolding.
While some students may have topics for which they can generate their own details and examples, other topics may require outside research. Help students stay focused by having them generate a list of specific key words or phrases that they will search to support their thesis statements.
Video playback may not work on all devices. Choose examples and discuss how different words show different relationships between causes and effects and therefore when you would use one over another.
One way to describe the introduction is to compare it to an inverted triangle or the top section of an hourglass. How can a cause-and-effect essay be organized in different ways? Take a few minutes to revisit this essay.
Large-group discussion of transitions ends the lesson as students begin to draft their own essays. For example, in the paragraph about increasing physical abilities, the author gives facts showing that participating in a sport increases speed, muscular mass, stamina, lung capacity, and elasticity.
Explain that they should find a logical order for their paragraphs. Then students work independently to develop their chosen topics.
Review the exercise to show the effect of the transitions. Explain that they will have an opportunity to get feedback on their drafts and revise them before writing the final draft.
They must give credit to the source for any facts and statistics they use in the paper that are not their own work. Explain to students that transitions are like dots of glue that hold the ideas of their paper together.
Students who might require additional practice could choose an essay from the following Web site to make a visual representation of the causes and effects expressed: Tell students that their research should support each topic sentence. The chart lists common transitions used for different purposes in a paper.
Approve this list and ensure its focus before they begin. A good resource for citation guidelines is at http:K-1 Student Center Activities: Comprehension © The Florida Center for Reading Research (Revised, ) Comprehension Objective The student will identify the relationship between cause and effect.
This model includes a completed graphic organizer, cause and effect paper, and four point grading rubric for a cause and effect paper based on the character of Crash. The rubric assesses intoduction, cause, effects, conclusion, and mechanics.
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